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Let's take some useful greetings and courteous expressions we will try to, focus on the expressions used in Egypt (so when I say "Colloquially people say such-and-such," I'm referring to Egypt). In some cases, I gave a standard variant and then detailed the colloquial usage below. Also, I gave everything in the masculine form, just because it's easier than including the feminine and plural forms for everything.
Welcome; hello: أهلا وسهلا (ahlan wa sahlan) Response: أهلا بيك (ahlan bīk)/Biki " to a Female" You can say أهلا وسهلا when welcoming someone (ex. to your country or home). And you can also say اهلا to mean just "hello."

Welcome; hello: مرحبا (marHaban) Response: مرحبا بيك (marHaban bīk – male ) (marHaban bīk”i” – female)

Good morning: صباح الخير (SabāH al-xeir) Response: صباح النور (SabāH an/en-nūr)
There are more colloquial variants on صباح الخير/النور that you can use, like صباح القشطة (SabāH il-'išTa - lit. morning of cream), صباح الفل (SabāH il-full - lit. morning of jasmine), and صباح الورد (SabāH il-ward - lit. morning of rose). They're a little "baladi" (i.e. used more by the rural and lower classes), but you can still use them to add some color to your speech.
Good evening: مساء الخير (masā' al-xeir) Response: مساء النور (masā' an-nūr) You can also say مساء القشطة, مساء الفل, and مساء الورد here too.

How are you?" is ازيك (izzayyak). You can also say, ازي الاحوال؟ (izzayy il-aHwaal?)
or ازي الصحة؟ (izzayy iS-SiHHa)

How are you? 
’ezzayyak? إزيك (to a male) ’ezzayyek? إزيك (to a female)
’ezzayyoku? إزيكو (to a group) ’ezzāy hàdretàk? إزي حضرتك (to an elder; hàdretek: female)

Fine, thank you. 
kowayyes šokràn كويس شكرا (male) kowayyesa šokràn كويسة شكرا (female) kowayyesīn šokràn كويسين شكراً (group) A far more common response to the question "how are you" is simply  to  thank God - el-hamde  lellah الحمد لله

Other ways
كله تمام.
Kolo tamam.
All good.

We7esh/a "female"

مش وحش.
Mesh we7esh/a "Female".
Not bad.

انا عيان.
Ana 3yan/a "Female".
I’m sick.

تعبان شوية.
Ta3ban/a "F"  shewaya.
A little tired.

Nice to meet you: فرصة سعيدة (furSa sa3īda) - lit. Happy chance Response: أنا الأسعد (ana l-as3ad) - lit. I am happier
Or just say : فرصة سعيدة (furSa sa3īda)
Good night (to sleep) 
tesbàh `ala xēr تصبح على خير (to a male) tesbàhi `ala xēr تصبحي على خير (to a female) tesbàhu `ala xēr تصبحو على خير (to a group)
men fàdlàk من فضلك (to a male) men fàdlek من فضلك (to a female) men fàdloku من فضلكو (to a group)
Thank you. 
šokràn شكراً

You're welcome. 
el `afw or afwan العفو

’aywa أيوا

la’  لأ

Excuse me. (getting attention) 
law samaht لو سمحت (to a male) law samahti لو سمحتي (to a female) law samahtu لو سمحتو (to a group)

Excuse me. (avoiding offence) 
ba`de  ’eznak بعد إذنك (to a male) ba`de  ’eznek بعد إذنك (to a female) ba`de  ’eznoku بعد إذنكو (to a group)

Excuse me. (begging pardon) 
la mu’axza لا مؤاخذة

I'm sorry 
’ana ’āsef أنا آسف (male) ’ana ’asfa أنا آسفة (female)

ma`as-salāma مع السلامة

Goodbye (informal) 
salām سلام 

Here is an example of dialogue you can make with "your friend /or teacher)

The question and then The answer
اسمك ايه؟
Ismak eah?
What's your name?

... انا اسمي
Ana Ismi ...
My name is ...

انتا منين؟
Inta Menin?
Where are you from?

 …انا من
Ana min ...
I'm from ...

جنسيتك ايه
Gensiytak eah?
What's your nationality?

i'm Egyptian /Brazilian
  انا مصرى
Ana " Brasil+ i + "a" for female

Asking how old are you or what's your birthdate "two different ways "
عمرك اد ايه؟
3omrak ad eah?
How old are you?

تاريخ ميلادك كام؟
Tari7’ Miladk kam?
What is your date of birth?

انا عندي ... سنة
Ana 3andi ... sana
I am .... years old

... عيد ميلادي
3id/ Tari7'  Miladi ...
My birthday is on ...

عندك اخوات؟
3andk I7’wat?
Do you have siblings?

ايوه انا عندي اخوات
Aiwa, Ana 3andi I7’wat
Yes, I have siblings

لأ انا مش عندي اخوات
La2, Ana mosh 3andi I7’wat
No, I don't have siblings

عندك كام اخ؟
3andk kam a7’ / O7't?
How many siblings do you have?

انا عندي ... اخوات
Ana 3andi ... I7’wat
I have ... siblings

عندك اولاد؟
3andk Wilad?
Do you have children?

ايوه انا عندي اولاد
Aiwa Ana 3andi Awlad
Yes, I have ... children

عندك كام ولد؟
3andk kam Walad?
How many sons do you have?

 انا عندي اولاد
Ana 3andi......  walad/ Bent Awlad /bnanat "plural" 
Yes, I have ...  boy"s/ Girl"s

انتا متجوز؟
Inta/i Mitgawiz/a"f"?
Are you married?

ايوه انا متجوز
Aiwa Ana Mitgawiz/a
Yes, I'm married

لأ انا مش متجوز
La2 Ana Mish Mitgawiz/a
No, I'm not married

عنوانك ايه؟
3inwank eah?
What is your address

... عنواني
3enwani ...
My address is ...

  رقم تليفونك كام ؟
Rakam telifonak kam?
What is your telephone number?

... رقم تليفوني
Rakam Telifony ...
My telephone number is ...

ايميلك ايه؟
Imilak eah?
What is your email address?

ايميلى هو
Imily howa :-----@
My email is : …..
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